Office of Naval Research Summer Faculty Research & Sabbatical Leave Program
Naval Surface Warfare Center - Dahlgren Division(NSWCDD)


NSWCDD's Summer Faculty Research Program requires participants to be United States Citizens. Dual citizenship will be considered on a case by case basis.

The 2017 Summer Faculty Research Program has identified 13 specific opportunities listed below for faculty to consider. When applying for a specific position please identify the POC related to that position exactly as it is listed.

However, there may be additional opportunities available** under the Technical Capabilities listed herein.

NSWCDD's mission is to provide research, development, test and evaluation, analysis, systems engineering, integration and certification of complex naval warfare systems. Through the years, Dahlgren established itself as the major testing area for naval guns and ammunition. Today, it continues to provide the military with testing and certification by utilizing its Potomac River Test Range in Dahlgren, VA, and provides Fleet support at Combat Direction Systems Activity in Dam Neck, overlooking the Virginia Capes Fleet Operations Area, Virginia Beach, VA.

NSWCDD conducts basic research in all systems-related areas and pursues scientific disciplines including physics, mathematics, laser and computer technology, software, mechanical, electrical and systems engineering, and biotechnology and chemistry.

As a premier naval scientific and engineering institution, Dahlgren technology is critical to new design concepts for current ships and for systems integration and interoperability for the U.S. Navy.

In support of the Office of Naval Research, NSWCDD scientists and engineers are developing and testing the Electromagnetic Railgun, bringing the Navy closer to a promising new Naval gun system capable of extended ranges against surface, air and ground targets. NSWCDD is also home to the Naval Directed Energy Office, the Navy's top facility for research and development of pulsed power, microwave, and laser technologies. In 2014, an NSWCDD-developed laser weapon system, brought significant new capabilities to America's Sailors and Marines, and was successfully deployed and operated aboard a naval vessel in the Arabian Gulf. The deployment aboard USS Ponce (AFSB (I)-15) demonstrated a laser weapon working aboard a deployed U.S. Navy ship operating seamlessly with existing ship defense systems.

In keeping with its legacy of test and evaluation of naval ordnance, NSWCDD was a key player with the Office of Naval Research (ONR) in developing the Littoral Combat Ship (LCS) gun mission module. NSWCDD engineers actively support the LCS program.

At its Dam Neck location, NSWCDD scientists and engineers modernize and sustain systems on nearly every combatant and capital ship in the Fleet – systems such as Battle Force Tactical Training or BFTT; SQQ-89 Undersea Warfare Combat System, the Ship Self Defense System (SSDS) Mk 2, radar data distribution and display systems; and special sensors. Hardware design supporting SSDS produced a savings of over $12 million dollars in hardware procurement costs alone over the previous baseline. The Navy's modernization of the LSD 41/49 class and LHD 2 through 6 ships would not be affordable without those savings.

NSWCDD also supports munition and mortar systems for U.S. Marine Corps sponsors and provides technical support to troops in theater.

Among its many assets is an unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) runway, which gives NSWCDD an organic and effective in-house capability to research, develop and test UAVs with new sensors, payloads, weapons and engagement systems.

NSWCDD supports operations other-than-war, homeland defense, chemical-biological warfare protection, and counter-terrorism. NSWCDD is a specialty site for human systems integration in ship systems design and home to the Navy's premier chemical, biological and radiological defense lab.

Job Descriptions for SFRP 2017:

#1. POC: "Lorraine Harting R01"

Job Title: Infusion of System Safety Engineering into National STEM Initiatives

Location: Dahlgren, VA

Job Description: Safety engineers within the Systems Safety Engineering Division have identified the need to place more emphasis on specialty areas of engineering, particularly system safety, into Science, Technology, Engineering, and Math (STEM) pre-college education.1 To help cultivate the knowledge and skills required for this specialty engineering discipline, strategies to infuse system safety engineering into national STEM initiatives have been identified. The selected faculty member would be responsible for working towards implementation of these strategies through:
  • Development of the System Safety Challenge activity for integration into the existing Ten80 Education Racing Program curriculum, which is a well-known, national STEM program.2 Coordination with the National Ten80 Education Consortium is anticipated.
  • Development of classroom materials introducing students to system safety engineering. This will include lesson plans and activities that will culminate into a teacher's guide.
In addition to cultivating system safety knowledge and skills, this project also provides a teachable opportunity on good systems engineering practices, including how to write clear, testable requirements. A faculty member who can bring an interdisciplinary approach with both Education and Systems Engineering credentials is preferred, although not required.
  1. Green, Owens, Scarabello, "Strategies for Infusing System Safety Engineering into Pre-College Science, Technology, Engineering, and Math (STEM) Initiatives," NSWCDD-PN-15-00120.
  2. http://www.ten80education.com/
#2. POC: "Lorraine Harting R02"

Job Title: Additive Manufacturing Research

Location: Dam Neck, VA

Job Description: Rapid Prototyping: Additive Manufacturing (AM) research including: DMLS and other metal-based processes, lightweight cellular structures, embedded sensors, non-assembled mechanisms, shipboard integration of AM machines, improved support structures for metal-based processes, rapid prototyping for vehicles, and AM applications related to Expeditionary Warfare.

#3. POC: "Lorraine Harting R03"

Job Title: Examination of Formal Methods in Support of Mission-Critical Code Verification

Location: Dahlgren VA

Job Description: Safety engineering of mission-critical naval systems seeks to identify risks and mitigate them to an acceptable level. Lab testing and code walkthroughs are two means used to verify correctness of code with high safety criticality. This research project will survey the state of the art, including tool support, for code verification. It will examine two questions: (1) Can small but meaningful portions of code with high safety criticality be shown to be provably correct; and (2) Can formal methods such as theorem proving be implemented affordably. A final report would provide options and recommendations.

#4. POC: "Lorraine Harting Q01"

Job Title: HPRF Coupling and Disruption of Electronics in Complicated Enclosures

Location: Dahlgren, VA

Multiple Opportunities Available

Accompanying Student authorized: One available – must apply to ONR NREIP program

Job Description: A variety of high power radio frequency (HPRF) sources have been developed recently, including several novel, solid-state, compact sources that produce very high peak power levels (10s of MW with potential to reach GW) that are capable of a wide variety of novel RF waveforms. Substantial progress has been made to reduce the size, weight, and power requirements of these HPRF sources. However, significant challenges exist with predicting the weapon effectiveness for such systems in combat operations, particularly given the variety of RF waveforms made possible by emerging flexible high power RF and microwave sources.

HPRF sources from 30 MHz to 10s of GHz have the utility to be employed as intentional and unintentional mechanisms to affect, disrupt, disable or destroy electronic circuitry. Unfortunately, at this point in time, the underlying electromagnetic coupling mechanisms for this phenomenon are not well understood, especially for multi-port enclosures and multi-layer printed circuit board coupling, and thus, techniques to predict response of a wide variety of ever evolving threat critical electronics have not been adequately developed and validated. There are basic multi-disciplinary physics issues that are unknown including HPRF propagation through circuits, case joints, and enclosures and the effect on microcircuit upset and recovery, multiple pulse impact to circuit devices, stochastic nature of circuit disrupt and recovery, and the probabilistic nature of HPRF impact to circuits in complicated enclosures. Fundamentally new approaches are required

The objective of this basic and applied research task is to develop fundamentally new approaches to understand and predict HPRF coupling and disruption of electronics in complicated enclosures. This multi-disciplinary technical approach to furthering the knowledge of HPRF coupling is necessary for: 1) transmitter and receiver front-ends; (2) transmission lines; (3) coupling through electronics pins; and (4) direct coupling at the diode and transistor junction level. Use the resulting models, simulations and analyses to determine the effectiveness of theoretically possible waveforms enabled by emerging solid state HPRF technologies before these technologies are available at sufficient power levels to support high power full system test and evaluation. This fundamental effect mechanism knowledge product will save valuable time and funding in the development of improved HPRF systems.

#5. POC: "Lorraine Harting Q02"

Job Title: DC-DC Converters Used for Rapid Capacitor Charging High Voltage (HV) Power Supplies and Critical Switching Components

Location: Dahlgren, VA

Multiple Opportunities Available

Accompanying Student Authorized: One available – must apply to ONR NREIP program

Job Description: A variety of high power radio frequency (HPRF) sources have been developed recently, including several novel, solid-state, compact sources that produce very high peak power levels (10s of MW with potential to reach GW). Substantial progress has been made to reduce the size, weight, and power requirements of these HPRF sources. However, less attention has been given to the pulsed power and power electronics driver components crucial for operation of these devices at higher pulse repetition frequencies. Conventional pulsed power systems used as power modulators to drive HPRF sources and associated High Voltage Power Supplies (HVPS) can be significantly larger than the RF source itself. The current state of the art is for modulators is primarily based on spark gap technology, which has inherent repetition rate limitations, and common topologies such as Blumleins, Marx generators, pulse transformers or pulse forming networks which tend to be large and/or bulky. Additionally, these standard voltage multiplying circuits typically produce an output pulse with limited flexibility due to the inherent RC time constants of the fixed circuit elements such as capacitors and inductors. Typical HPVS sub-systems are COTS items using 5-10 year old semiconductor switching devices and designed for continuous operation.

Advanced semiconductor switching technologies can dramatically reduce the size of the driver elements, increase overall efficiency and improve performance parameters such as jitter which is critical in an arrayed system. Additionally, increased understanding of how state of the art semiconductor switches could be applied to HPRF applications in power supplies and power modulators is a key initial step in developing improved systems for Navy applications. For HPRF systems to become viable for more challenging employment options, pulsed power drivers and switching components must be developed that are just as compact as the RF sources they support. The goal of this research task is the performance of applied research in the area of compact, repetitive pulsed power driver components and topologies (including prime power, pulse conditioning driver, thermal management if required, and controls) for HPRF sources capable of 1 to 10's of kHz repetition rates in burst mode for one minute or less, with a pulse of peak amplitude of 30-50 kV and pulse-width of 5-100 ns.

Primary interest is in DC-DC converters used for rapid capacitor charging high voltage (HV) power supplies and critical switching components. Novel approaches for prime power based upon emerging battery technology, super capacitors and/or hybrid energy storage are also of interest. Scalability of these switching technologies to higher average power for high energy laser, electromagnetic railgun and other electric weapons is also of interest.

#6. POC: "Lorraine Harting K01"

Job Title: Weather Research using Airborne Sensors to Support C-band Radar Measurements

Location: Dahlgren, VA

Background: In 2015, NSWCDD partnered with the Naval Research Laboratory, Monterey CA, in conducting a multi-organizational weather experiment that involved scanning a number of clouds with a very powerful C-band radar while measuring the same cloud with airborne measurements. The Navy owned Mid-course Radar (MCR) is located just north of Cape Canaveral and was used by NSWCDD and NRL in a similar 2010 experiment that studied mid-level clouds. One of NSWCDD's major objectives for this 2015 experiment was to use the airborne measurements to better understand how to formulate the C-band radar scans into estimates of Liquid/Ice water content of high level cirrus clouds. In order to execute the experiment, a suite of ground based instruments were shipped from NRL to operate from the MCR site. These ground based instruments provide information that help conduct the experiment in real time. Furthermore, data collected from these ground based instruments will help calibrate and synthesize the airborne measurements with the MCR.

Job Description: NSWCDD Research Need

NSWCDD needs an academic atmospheric researcher to investigate methods and procedures that will use the data collected from the airborne sensors to help accurately describe the meteorology measured by both the MCR scans measured and the airborne instruments collected in the 2015 experiment. NSWCDD needs this atmospheric cirrus cloud researcher to be an expert in Liquid/Ice Water Content in situ measurements and that can work with the NRL meteorologists in developing LWC estimates from C-band cirrus clouds scans.

NSWCDD 2017 Experiment Design Need

Based on the analysis thus far in the execution of the 2015 MCR experiment, NSWCDD is anticipating a need for a follow-on 2017 weather campaign with the purpose of completing the objective of the 2015 data collection at the MCR C-band radar site. A number of issues and obstacles occurred during the execution of the MCR 2015 experiment. The major obstacle was that the MCR antenna had hardware problems which limited the use and availability. We collected about one third of the data that we had planned on collecting. NSWCDD needs the LWC expert in airborne sensors to help ascertain the impacts of what the 2015 MCR obstacles had on the original objectives of the experiment based upon the information collected by the airborne sensors. The researcher will help NSWCDD and NRL design a weather collection campaign for a 2017 time frame that will mitigate the losses identified by analyzing data from the 2015 experiment. The experiment design should be completed by the end of summer 2017.

#7. POC: "Lorraine Harting K02"

Job Title: Weather Research using Ground Based Instruments to Support C-band Radar Measurements

Location: Dahlgren, VA

Background: In 2015, NSWCDD partnered with the Naval Research Laboratory, Monterey CA, in conducting a multi-organizational weather experiment that involved scanning a number of clouds with a very powerful C-band radar while measuring the same cloud with airborne measurements. The Navy owned Mid-course Radar (MCR) is located just north of Cape Canaveral and was used by NSWCDD and NRL in a similar 2010 experiment that studied mid-level clouds. One of NSWCDD's major objectives for this 2015 experiment was to use the airborne measurements to better understand how to formulate the C-band radar scans into estimates of Liquid/Ice water content of high level cirrus clouds. In order to execute the experiment, a suite of ground based instruments were shipped from NRL to operate from the MCR site. These ground based instruments provide information that help conduct the experiment in real time. Furthermore, data collected from these ground based instruments will help calibrate and synthesize the airborne measurements with the MCR.

Job Description: NSWCDD Research Need

NSWCDD needs academic an atmospheric researcher to investigate methods and procedures that will use the data collected from the ground based instruments to help accurately describe the meteorology measured by both the MCR scans measured and the airborne instruments collected in the 2015 experiment. A number of issues and obstacles occurred during the execution of the MCR 2015 experiment. The major obstacle was that the MCR antenna had hardware problems which limited the use and availability. We collected about one third of the data that we had planned on collecting. NSWCDD needs an atmospheric cirrus cloud researcher to help ascertain the impacts of what these obstacles had on the original objectives of the experiment based upon the information collected by the ground based instruments. The researcher will help NSWCDD and NRL design a weather collection campaign for a 2017 time frame that will mitigate the losses identified by analyzing data from the 2015 experiment.

Weather Station Need

Based on the analysis thus far in the execution of the 2015 MCR experiment, NSWCDD is anticipating a need for a low-cost weather station that is co-located at a C-band radar site. We would like the researcher to help NSWCDD design such a low-cost weather station in conjunction with researchers at NRL and be operational by end of summer 2017. NSWCDD would like the same academic researcher to support the installation and initial operation of the weather station's ground instrumentation. The design of the weather station would be such that NRL meteorologists and NSWCDD analysts could access the data from the instruments remotely. Such a station would be enduring and designed to support understanding the meteorology of future C-band cloud scanning.

#8. POC: "Lorraine Harting K03"

Job Title: Analysis of Large, High Dimensional, Complex Data Sets

Location: Dahlgren, VA

Accompanying Student Authorized: One available – must apply to ONR NREIP program

Job Description: The analysis of large, high dimensional, complex data sets is important for a myriad of applications. One of the basic tools of analysis involves using graphs to encode local structure, then applying various techniques from linear algebra, geometry and topology to either embed the data into a lower dimensional space or to extract global information about the data [1,4,6,7,8]. Various mathematical techniques are relevant including, but not limited to, spectral graph embedding [9], multidimensional scaling [3,4,5], manifold learning [7], and topological data analysis [2]. This work could go in several different directions depending on the interests of the candidate, including: methodologies aimed at specific types of inference such as classification, clustering or model selection; understanding the connection between the local structure of the graph, spectral embedding techniques and topological invariants; methods to utilize topological structure to determine the correct embedding space – which could mean the dimension of the embedding or the topology of the space into which one should embed; methods for embedding a point cloud into a given topological space and methods for performing inference in that space; utilizing local scale estimates to construct better graph filtrations (or to construct a single "best" graph) for defining the complex used in the topological calculations; more general theories for how to select the best spectral embedding techniques for a given inference task; efficient algorithms for computing homologies for large data sets or graphs. The above discussion provides some indication of the scope of our interest, but a summer project would likely only touch on one aspect of one of these areas.

References:
  1. Carlsson, Gunnar, "Topology and Data", Bulletin of the AMS, Volume 46, Number 2, April 2009, Pages 255–308.
  2. Carlsson, Gunnar, et al. "On the Local Behavior of Spaces of Natural Images", http://redwood.berkeley.edu/vs265/carlsson-ijcv08.pdf
  3. Johannsen, David A., and Jeffrey L. Solka. "Embedding in space forms." Journal of Multivariate Analysis 114 (2013): 171-188.
  4. Aflo and Kimmel, "Spectral multidimensional scaling", PNAS, 110 (45), 18052-18075, 2013.
  5. C.E Priebe, D.J. Marchette, Z. Ma, S. Adali, "Manifold Matching: Joint Optimization of Fidelity and Commensurability", Brazilian Journal of Probability and Statistics, 27 (3), 2013, 377–400.
  6. D.J. Marchette, Random Graphs for Statistical Pattern Recognition, John Wiley & Sons, 2004.
  7. Cayton, Lawrence. "Algorithms for manifold learning." Univ. of California at San Diego Tech. Rep (2005): 1-17. http://www.vis.lbl.gov/~romano/mlgroup/papers/manifold-learning.pdf
  8. Wang, Jianzhong. Geometric structure of high-dimensional data and dimensionality reduction. Springer, 2012.
  9. Luo, Bin, Richard C. Wilson, and Edwin R. Hancock. "Spectral embedding of graphs." Pattern recognition 36.10 (2003): 2213-2230.
#9. POC: "Lorraine Harting K04"

Job Title: Cyber Defense Research

Location: Dahlgren, VA

Accompanying Student Authorized: One available – must apply to ONR NREIP program

Job Description: The first step in many cyber-attacks is to preform reconnaissance and locate vulnerable applications within a given target network. In doing so, attackers use various tools to fingerprint and scan the network for information such as Operating Systems (types and version numbers), open port services (types and version numbers), firewalls and intrusion detection systems as well as other layers of network defense. The approach to the proposed defensive measure is to decrease the attack surface by increasing the attacker's uncertainty about the networks topology through Internet Protocol (IP) obfuscation. This area of cyber is currently known as Moving Target Defense (MTD).

IP obfuscation has been demonstrated in laboratory environments and other controlled networks. The next step in the development of IP obfuscation will be to port the existing proof of concept to the most recent operating systems used on enterprise networks to date. MTD is a key breakthrough in the area of cyber defensive research; however, the cyber threat continues to expand exponentially as zero day vulnerabilities are discovered within developed applications. Defensive cyber techniques, such as those being developed under Navy research programs, need to continue towards innovation and improvement to prevent the attackers from entering and compromising secure networks.

#10. POC: "Lorraine Harting K05"

Job Title: An Approach to a Hardware Abstraction Layer for Legacy Control Systems

Location: Dahlgren, VA

Abstract: The emergence of hypervisors and commodity multi-core systems presents a paradigm shift for dealing with distributed real-time systems. The ability to isolate an individual control process within a dedicated virtual machine and dedicated virtual or physical processors allow us to migrate from legacy distributed single-core systems to more modern, centralized and resilient virtualized systems.

Job Description: There are many legacy control systems designed and deployed decades ago to control critical real-time systems. Considerable investments were made at the time to understand the system requirements and desired functionality, as well as to design, construct, deploy and test those control systems to insure they are meeting the real-time requirements. As those legacy control systems age, the maintenance costs increase and performances decrease.

Computational hardware components are either no longer manufactured or are prohibitively expensive. Software components, including operating systems, are problematic to the software obsolescence of legacy solutions. How can we address this problem? The obvious solution would be to design and deploy a new control system. However, there are many obstacles, most notably, testing/certifying the new control system is prohibitively expensive. Is there an approach that would allow us to leverage investments made in the legacy control system whose functional requirements have not changed, while addressing computational hardware obsolesce?

Modern embedded systems and System on Chip (SoC), provide I/O capabilities and processing power that surpass, usually by an order of magnitude, capabilities of the legacy Embedded Controllers (ECs). One such modern embedded system can act as a Virtualized Embedded Controller (VEC) that "combines" several legacy ECs and takes over the corresponding sensors, actuators and tasks. Conceptually, the legacy ECs are processes in the corresponding VEC. The goal is to provide real-time guarantees and maintain functionality/performance of the legacy control systems running on multi-core hypervisor systems. It is an iterative process where the experimental results are used to inform the theoretical model. This is especially important when developing a custom scheduler.

In 2015, an ONR senior fellowship was used to explore the approach of a VEC based on the defined measures for determinism of the scheduling. The mapping between the scheduler model and the underlying architecture allows for virtual and physical separation of individual control processes while maintaining the original control system's characteristics. This work demonstrated the feasibility of studying real-time multi-core virtual machine schedulers and comparing them from theoretical and experimental perspectives.

The study was based on Compositional Scheduling Analysis (CSA). CSA models the system as a set of components. Each component has either a set of subcomponents or a set of tasks. A component is defined (Equation 1) as:

C = (W ; R; A) (1)


where W is a workload, i.e., a set of tasks (components); R is a resource interface; and A is a scheduling policy used to schedule W . The CARTS (Compositional Analysis of Real-Time Systems) tool can be used to automatically generates resource interfaces for the compositional analysis of real-time systems.

The focus of proposed ONR fellowship is to develop a more detailed formal model of a composite hierarchical scheduler, establish a model driven development of the overall control system and to build the corresponding domain model (including types of tasks and timing requirements/metrics). The scheduler in the HAL does partition scheduling, while priority scheduling is used in the Embedded Real-time OS (ERTOS).

#11. POC: "Lorraine Harting K06"

Job Title: Defensive Cyber Techniques

Location: Dahlgren, VA

Accompanying Student Authorized: One available – must apply to ONR NREIP program

The first step in many cyber-attacks is to preform reconnaissance and locate vulnerable applications within a given target network. In doing so, attackers use various tools to fingerprint and scan the network for information such as Operating Systems (types and version numbers), open port services (types and version numbers), firewalls and intrusion detection systems as well as other layers of network defense. The approach to the proposed defensive measure is to decrease the attack surface by increasing the attacker's uncertainty about the networks topology through Internet Protocol (IP) obfuscation. This area of cyber is currently known as Moving Target Defense (MTD).

IP obfuscation has been demonstrated in laboratory environments and other controlled networks. The next step in the development of IP obfuscation will be to port the existing proof of concept to the most recent operating systems used on enterprise networks to date. MTD is a key breakthrough in the area of cyber defensive research; however, the cyber threat continues to expand exponentially as zero day vulnerabilities are discovered within developed applications. Defensive cyber techniques, such as those being developed under Navy research programs, need to continue towards innovation and improvement to prevent the attackers from entering and compromising secure networks.

#12. POC: "Lorraine Harting A03"

Job Title: Superabsorbent Polymers for Organic Solvents

Location: Dahlgren, VA

Job Description: The preparation and characterization of superabsorbent polymers for organic solvents, specifically aimed at problems like oil spills or sequestration of toxic chemicals in the environment.

#13. POC: "Lorraine Harting 001"

Job Title: STEM Research

Location: Dahlgren, VA

Job Description:
  1. Research data sources that provide information when mined for situational awareness of the STEM pipeline for NSWCDD. Types of data include numbers of STEM programs, numbers of students, students transitioning into STEM education, students graduating, students available for hire and new hires on board.
  2. Research data mining tools and algorithms that could be used to collect data from identified sources and provide for measures of correlation between sources.
  3. Research the cognitive aspects of decisions for STEM students with a focus on factors that positively impact entry into STEM and correlate to employment at NSWCDD
  4. Develop reports and papers that summarize the work and present conclusions and recommendations.
  5. Work with NSWCDD personnel as available during the summer to prototype data mining, data analysis and STEM program impact data presentations.
  6. Participate in all NSWCDD led summer STEM projects to develop a detailed understanding of the goals of the events, successes and challenges.
  7. Develop recommendations for updates to STEM curriculum for all events with the goal of keeping NSWCDD's STEM program cutting edge with respect to technology and learning methods.
**Additional Opportunities may be available under the following Technical Capabilities (DL – Dahlgren location; DN – Dam Neck location):

DD01 Force and Surface Platform Level Warfare Systems Analysis and Modeling (DL):

Provides the ability to identify the strengths and weaknesses of warfare systems (with exception of USW) in meeting national objectives; conducts special studies to evaluate the effects of modifying force structure, mission effectiveness, target selection, tactics, techniques and procedures, CONOPS development , and science and technology guidance. Provides assistance in developing requirements and options for future forces, evaluating variations in threat scenarios and impacts of technologies, and assessing comparative capability versus costs for Forces, Warfare Mission Areas, and complex System-of-Systems within the Naval environment.

DD02 Weapon Systems Analysis, Effects, and Effectiveness (DL):

Provides the ability to identify the strengths and weaknesses of weapons systems (with exception of USW) in meeting national objectives; conducts special studies to evaluate the effects of modifying force structure, targets, or tactics, and provides science and technology guidance. Provides assistance in developing and improving weapon systems, evaluating variations in threat scenarios and impacts of technologies; assessing comparative capability versus costs; assessing effects of kinetic and non-kinetic weapons systems on targets and identifying means to counter the effects; and assessing effectiveness of new weapons systems to achieve desired goals.

DD03 Radar and Electro-Optic Systems RDT&E (DL):

Provides investigations into promising Science and Technology thrusts for potential maturation and transition into Radar and Electro-Optic Systems. Provides for the research, development, test and evaluation (RDT&E) of radar and electro-optic sensors for naval systems. This function is full spectrum, including RDT&E of exploratory, advanced and engineering development sensors and systems as well as sensor development support and software support agent functions, for the development and acquisition of new radar systems, and the continuing spiral development of existing radar systems. Testing and evaluation services are provided from concept exploration through developmental testing. During formal DT/OT, testing and evaluation support emphasis shifts to providing data analysis and system expertise with this support continuing as necessary after the DT/OT. Also provides worldwide quick reaction support to the fleet to develop new sensors, modify existing sensors and to develop and evaluate sensor performance and countermeasures in times of crisis.

DD04 Surface Warfare Systems Engineering and Integration RDT&E (DL):

Provides for the specification and leadership necessary to develop warfare systems architectures including the design and integration of RDT&E for the Navy's surface force operating in the joint environment. Includes analysis, architecture and technology development for warfare systems. Also includes all the capabilities, functions, components, trade studies and elements required to systems engineer and develop warfare systems as well as adapting and transitioning new technologies and advanced capabilities to meet changing requirements.

DD05 Surface Combat Systems Engineering and Integration RDT&E (DL):

Provides investigations into promising Science and Technology thrusts for potential maturation and transition into Surface Combat Systems. Provides the RDT&E necessary to specify and develop combat system capabilities and architectures, including design and integration at the component, element and system level for the Navy's surface ships to optimize their effectiveness in the joint operational environment. Includes analysis, technology development, trade studies, integration and evaluation, and testing of combat systems. Also includes all the capabilities, functions, components, and elements required to systems engineer, develop, test, and support the combat systems architecture and integration from conception through fleet introduction. Performs Combat Systems Development support for fielded systems, adapting and transitioning new technologies, affecting architectural migration and advancing system and subsystem capabilities to meet changing requirements Lead modeling and simulation (M&S) Verification, Validation, and Accreditation (VV&A). Develop and instantiate standards and process for models used in system development, testing, and certification. Provides Systems Engineering leadership for Acquisition activities.

DD06 Surface Combat Control Systems S&T, RDT&E (DL):

Provides investigations into promising Science and Technology thrusts for potential maturation and transition into Surface Combat Control Systems. Provides for the specification and leadership enabling the development and support of combat control systems RDT&E for the Navy's surface ship fleet. Includes analysis, architecture development and engineering, technology development, integration and evaluation, and testing of combat control systems. Also includes all the capabilities, functions, components, trade studies and elements required to systems engineer, develop, test, and support the combat control systems from conception through fleet introduction. Performs Combat Control systems development support for fielded systems, adapting and transitioning new technologies, affecting architectural migration, and advancing system and subsystem capabilities to meet changing requirements. Provides Systems Engineering leadership for Acquisition activities.

DD07 Surface Conventional Weapon Control Systems RDT&E (DL):

Provides investigations into promising Science and Technology thrusts for potential maturation and transition into Surface Conventional Weapon Control Systems. Provides for the specification and leadership enabling the development and support of conventional weapon control systems RDT&E for the Navy's surface ship fleet. Includes analysis, technology development, integration and evaluation, and testing of conventional weapon control systems. Also includes all the capabilities, functions, components, and elements required to systems engineer, develop, test, and support the conventional weapon control systems from conception through fleet introduction. Performs Weapon Control System development support for fielded systems, adapting and transitioning new technologies and advanced capabilities to meet changing requirements. Provides Systems Engineering leadership for Acquisition activities

DD08 Surface Warfare System and Force Level Certification/IV&V:

Provides for the specification and leadership enabling the development of common processes for the execution of warfare, combat systems, control and weapon systems, and element certification activities for effective force operation in the joint arena. Certification processes are optimized to address competing concerns precipitated by increasingly complex system development. Processes must be both comprehensive and independent to address technology and architecture advancements and threat evolution. Certification and Independent Verification and Validation spans the development cycle from requirements to deployed baselines.

DD09 Human Systems Integration Science and Engineering:

Provides a body of knowledge and subject matter expertise for the development of technologies in support of HSI. Provides science, technology, and systems engineering expertise in human systems integration to define policy, processes and enterprise solutions for Navy acquisition programs with the exception of submarines, stressing optimization of manpower, decision support, and knowledge superiority in an effort to enhance the capabilities of our warfighters and improve total system performance and affordability over the entire life-cycle cost of a platform or system. Addresses Surface Navy definition requirements for knowledge superiority; decision support; effective communications; human-computer interaction; manning optimization; training; usability testing of new warfighter-centered designs; design of work environments, workstation/consoles, and command spaces; measurement of workload and performance across individual, team, systems, and organizational domains; and is instrumental in identifying issues regarding a new way of thinking about afloat and ashore command and control.

DD10 Missile Systems Integration (DL):

Provides national technical leadership and oversight for missile systems integration including the integration of associated launchers and payloads. Performs integration assessments of advanced concepts for missiles, payloads, and launchers. Performs integration and development of integration requirements for missiles, lethal and non-lethal payloads, launchers and associated sub-systems. Provides the systems engineering and integration required to transform a multiplicity of system elements into effective engagement systems. Expertise in mechanical, electrical and C2 systems is utilized for the integration of engagement systems with the host ship systems.

DD11 Surface Conventional and Electromagnetic Gun Systems RDT&E (DL):

Provides S&T, RDT&E and Acquisition Support for conventional and electromagnetic gun systems and associated munitions (greater than or equal to 20MM) from technology development to platform integration. Provides critical technology development and the systems engineering and integration required to transform a multiplicity of system elements into an effective gun system. Process involves both the maturing of technologies and the flow down of requirements necessary to define the specifications for new gun systems, product improvements, and modifications.

DD12 Directed Energy Systems RDT&E (DL):

Leads all S&T and RDT&E for the development and weaponization of Directed Energy (DE) systems for surface, air and ground environments. Leads the development of offensive and defensive DE technologies needed to characterize and exploit vulnerabilities, provide weapons, and protect against attack. Provides the technologies, devices, and systems designed to create or control electromagnetic energy that is used to cause persistent disruption or permanent damage by attacking target materials, electronics, optics, antennas, sensors, arrays and personnel, including non-lethal applications. Efforts include requirements analysis, measurement capabilities, concept demonstrations, system engineering, major product improvements, system integration, product development test and evaluation, and test and evaluation support through the formal DT/OT stages of acquisition.

DD13 Weaponization of Surface and Air Unmanned Systems (DL):

Provides RDT&E, Acquisition Support for weaponization of surface and air unmanned systems for missions other that USW – from technology development to platform integration. Provides the systems engineering and integration required to effectively weaponize an unmanned system. Process involves the flowdown of requirements necessary to define the specifications for weaponization, product improvements, and modifications.

DD14 Marine Corps and Other Weaponry Systems RDT&E (DL):

Provides the technology base and conducts RDT&E to develop and demonstrate technologies to meet the Marine Corps unique weapons responsibility for expeditionary missions, amphibious warfare, and subsequent operations ashore. Also provides technology base and RDT&E support for unique programs for Navy and other DOD customers. Responsibilities includes the design and development of new systems or components, product improvements enhancing the military performance of existing systems or components, the neutralizing of deficiencies in stated requirements, weapons system integration and acquisition.

DD15 Strategic Mission Planning, Targeting, and Fire Control Systems (DL):

Provides technology advancement, systems engineering, software development, and operational support for mission planning, targeting, and fire control systems for nuclear and non-nuclear strategic systems. Development of modernization concepts, development of technology to meet future need, and new system concepts (e.g., SSGN) is also supported. Applies to existing systems (all U.S. and U.K. Submarine Launched Ballistic Missile (SLBM) systems), evolving systems and to needs not previously identified by the Navy or other services

DD16 Re-Entry Systems (DL):

Provides the system definition and participates in and manages the development of reentry systems, including definition of environments of their effects, performing analysis of reentry materials, technology development, reentry vehicle design, testing of conceptual and prototype vehicles and project management.

DD17 Surface Electronic Warfare Systems Architecture and Combat System Integration RDT&E (DL):

Leads for overall top-level combat systems requirements definition, design, integration, analysis of alternatives, and requirements decomposition to the Electronic Warfare element of Surface Ship Combat Systems. Is responsible for up front systems engineering, combat system integration, performance requirements, combat system architectures, generation of weapon system integration requirements, and requirements definition. Leads the Electronic Warfare combat systems integration role; specifically, the bringing together of the Electronic Warfare elements of the Combat System for integration, test, and certification at the Platform, Strike Group, and Force levels. Is responsible for integration into the combat system, integration of elements into a suite, development, maintenance and upgrades of combat system databases which will be used by the Electronic Warfare elements, and combat system Electronic Warfare control and interface with the Electronic Warfare elements. Provides systems engineering, acquisition support, software expertise, technical evaluation and T&E for integration into the combat system. Collaborates with other Warfare Center activities to facilitate the transition of new technologies into EW elements for existing and planned combat systems.

DD18 Surface Warfare Systems Safety (DL):

Provides analytical, technology base, systems engineering, product development, and fleet support expertise to assess compliance of systems safety and survivability requirements of fleet assets, especially surface warfare assets. Defines and determines effects from shock, blast, fragments, toxic products, and laser radiation in the life cycle evolution of weapons and/or combat systems. Assesses system and item vulnerabilities including software; and specifies, designs, and develops means to remove failure modes, control environments, limit damage, or otherwise reduce possible loss of combat capability.

DD19 Surface Warfare Electromagnetic Environmental Effects (DL):

Provides leadership in the area of Electromagnetic Environmental Effects (E3) RDT&E that assures operational effectiveness of Naval and joint systems exposed to stressing electromagnetic (EM) environments. Develops and applies analytical and experimental techniques, facilities, and instrumentation required in the shipboard EM susceptibility/vulnerability assessment of electronic components, circuits, and systems. Coordinates and directs programs such as Hazards of Electromagnetic Radiation to Ordnance (HERO), Personnel (HERP), and Fuel (HERF) and Electromagnetic Vulnerability (EMV) to determine EM effects on equipment and systems. Investigates specific and generic EM susceptibility problems and develops, evaluates, and recommends procedural and hardware changes to ensure successful mission completion. Manages the Shipboard Electromagnetic Capability Improvement Program and serves as the E3 Battle Force interoperability electromagnetic interference (EMI) problem solver for the Navy. Develops and validates analytical and experimental techniques/tools, including computational electromagnetics, to predict and assess topside design issues based on location and performance. Coordinates and directs programs to achieve integrated topside designs maximizing system performance in the EM environment for new ships and ship alterations. Provides, via the Afloat Electromagnetic Spectrum Operations Program (AESOP) processes and guidance for Battle Force frequency management to the Fleet.

DD20 Chemical, Biological, and Radiological Warfare Defense Systems RDT&E (DL):

Provides for the RDT&E enabling aspects of Chemical, Biological and Radiological Warfare Defense (CBR-D). Provides technology base, threat analysis and full spectrum research, development and engineering expertise necessary to design, develop, integrate and support equipment to protect Naval and Joint Services forces afloat or ashore, whether the threat is chemical or biological. Technical Design and Acquisition Engineering, and In-Service Engineering are provided for CBR Collective Protection and CB Detection, and Acquisition Engineering is performed for Decontamination. In-service engineering is specifically provided in the areas of CB Detection systems, and land-based applications of CBR Collective Protection.

DD21 National Response Missions, Including Homeland Security and Defense (DL):

This technical capability focuses on the research, development, test, and engineering (RDT&E) and acquisition of capable warfighting and peacekeeping technology options that enable the Navy and Nation to more effectively and appropriately understand and respond to asymmetric threats and acts of aggression, with timely, balanced and appropriate measures. The focus of this technical capability is to adequately safeguard and empower our Nation's warfighters, homeland defenders, and first responders by ensuring they are equipped with proven and response-ready technologies for continuing to fight and win the Global War on Terrorism. This technical capability allows our men and women in uniform to effectively prepare for and react to the most pressing needs across a full spectrum of military operations, and focuses on improving our capacity to identify, deter, combat, defend against, and recover from terrorist attacks, major disasters, and national emergencies. To benefit the Navy, Joint Forces, and the Nation, this technical capability is intended to deliver innovative and cost-effective solutions to bolster asymmetric defense, maritime security, anti-terrorism, force protection, non-lethal warfare, identity management, stability, and law enforcement operations. These solutions directly impact our national efforts to combat and counter terrorism, including counter-narco terrorism; oppose the full spectrum of maritime threats; to enforce border and trade sanctions; integrate battlefield and special technologies; mature and integrate biometrics; enhance intelligence collection; refine security and defensive equipment; and support world-wide humanitarian services.

DD22 Physical and Non-Physical Vulnerability Analysis (DL):

Provides robust integration across the spectra of research, development, analysis, deployable tools and systems to assist the services, other government agencies, and the civilian sector in analyzing the support networks in place and developing options to mitigate potential threats. Addresses homeland security initiatives by providing the technical and systems engineering capability necessary to mitigate the effects of asymmetric threats on our homeland to include homeland defense and support to civilian authorities. Supports force protection requirements in the areas of combating terrorism, physical security, operations security and personal protective services by developing products to mitigate hostile actions against Dodd personnel, resources, facilities, and critical information. Includes a commercial and defense critical infrastructure protection, information assurance, and mission assurance capabilities by providing the ability to identify critical infrastructure susceptibilities and operational dependencies that, if not assured, could adversely impact mission success or continuity of operations.

DD23 Force Level Warfare Systems Engineering and Integration (DL):

Provides technical direction and systems engineering for the development of integrated systems and components that provide integrated force level capabilities, with emphasis on establishing the requirements necessary to define the total system in the context of the Joint Services platforms and the overall mission warfighting capability. Activities include systems engineering and analysis of new and existing systems, defining system interface requirements, reviewing platform integration packages, establishing test requirements, preparing test plans when applicable, reviewing and monitoring contractor test events, reviewing interface specifications, defining requirements for interfacing with communications systems as well as other Navy/Joint tactical systems, and defining communication architectures. Effort includes establishment of Performance and Functional baselines; development and analysis of requirements; and requirements mapping and allocation – all leading to the development of Key Performance Parameters (KPPs), Measures of Performance (MOPs), Measures of Effectiveness (MOEs), and Information Energetics Requirements (IERs) based on collaborative inputs from WFC divisions. Provides systems engineering expertise to devise and deploy systems that integrate within the U.S. Navy, U.S. Marine Corps, U.S. Army, U.S. Air Force, USSOCOM, Agency, and coalition forces operations.

DD24 Force Level Warfare Systems Interoperability Engineering (DL) :

Provides the analysis, systems engineering, and evaluation of the interoperability of systems and system of systems during early stages of program development. Evaluates the ability of deploying or deployed Navy / Joint systems and platforms to fulfill required contributions to mission capability within the context of naval, joint, allied and coalition operating environments, with overarching emphasis on achieving force interoperability. Live, virtual, and constructive environments are used to measure, quantify and report operational capabilities and limitations of developmental, prototype and deployed systems. Products assist in the development of acquisition strategies by identifying redundancies, deficiencies, and inefficiencies in the Navy's ability to support interoperable Joint operations across required capability areas. In support of the formal interoperability testing, provides:, developing the specialized facilities and assessment tools in an open architecture environment, characterizing deploying tactical group (CSG or ESG, etc.) contributions to mission capabilities within the context of joint and coalition operating concepts and developing interoperability metrics and measurement techniques and systems that support evaluation of performance against warfighter mission threads. Also provides for the development of distributed (at-sea and land-based) technology and architectures to test and certify selected C5I software interoperability. As programs continue through the acquisition cycle, force warfare system interoperability performance is assessed through collaboration with the Corona division.

DD27 Tactical Common Data Communications Systems Integration and Interoperability (DN):

Provides the technology applications, design, development, integration, test, and evaluation, to enable tactical common data communication infrastructure for integration of tactical subsystems. Capabilities focus on situational awareness, hostile detection, targeting, communication signature management, communications, and subsystem integration. Using the tactical common data communication infrastructure, these subsystems will be integrated into Joint and Navy large force units' strategic architectures and supported as needed to ensure operational capability and effectiveness.

DD35 Integrated Surface Combat Control Systems Support (DN):

Provides Systems Engineering and analysis to support the full integration of combat system elements. Provides In-Service Engineering support for currently assigned legacy systems throughout their remaining life-cycle. Analyzes fleet combat system and combat system interface issues in conjunction with combat system and element Design and In Service Engineering agents, and actively supports the acquisition, delivery, and software support of Integrated Combat Control Systems.

DD36 Integrated Training Systems (DN):

Focus of capability is the development and support of an integrated training capability across the National/ Agency/ Joint / Coalition / Maritime military system domains excluding USW training systems. Emphasis is placed on ensuring training capability is horizontally integrated and interoperable within the specific domain, meets the complete operational mission requirements of the specific domain, and is vertically integrated and interoperable with neighboring, superior, and subordinate systems and domains. Incorporates and integrates live/virtual/constructive training capabilities as well as modeling and simulation systems, learning methodologies and Human Systems Integration approaches to meet training system requirements. Through System of Systems engineering, design, development, and life cycle support, provides integrated training systems which improves readiness across the Fleet and will support all warfare areas across the breath of military Naval, Joint and Coalition operations.

DD37 Radar Distribution Systems (DN):

Specifies and leads the development, integration, acquisition and support of radar distribution systems and equipment for the Navy's surface ship fleet. Includes design, integration, analysis, technology development, software support, and testing of radar distribution systems and equipment. Also includes all the capabilities, functions, components, and elements required to acquire, develop, systems engineer, and test for the radar distribution systems and equipment from conception through their lifetime as well as adapting and transitioning new technologies and advanced capabilities to meet changing requirements. Provide In-Service Engineering and Integrated Logistics Support of radar distribution systems and equipment during all phases of the system life cycle. Develop system requirements and specifications. Provide Systems Engineering and analysis to support the full integration of radar distribution system elements. Analyze fleet system integration problems and failures to provide engineering and logistic solutions. Provide equipment restoration and COTS material support including COTS obsolescence management.

DD38 Joint Command and Control Systems Integration and Architecture Development (DN):

Provide developmental support and integration of Joint and Coalition systems. This technical capability provides systems engineering for development and evaluation of warfighter operational requirements, integration of technology with superior and subordinate system structures, and identification and development of next-generation technology including prototype assessment and rapidly fielding of new technology. Additionally, this capability provides full life cycle support as an engineering agent including on-site support at Combatant Commands, Software Support Activities, and engineering required to address technology obsolescence. Joint Task Force (JTF) and Joint Force Maritime Component Commander (JFMCC) architectural frameworks are decomposed to identify and correct specific domain shortfalls in capability, interoperability, and integration. Provides Joint Warfighter Command and Control capability across the Doctrine, Organization, Training, Materiel, Leadership, Personnel, and Facility (DOTMLPF) spectrum.